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Tomat0

Tomat0@bookwyrm.social

Joined 8 months ago

I mostly read non-fiction books on academic subjects although I'll read a few other stuff here and there.

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The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

The more a social activity, a series of social processes, becomes too powerful for men’s conscious control and grows above their heads, and the more it appears a matter of pure chance, then all the more surely within this chance the laws peculiar to it and inherent in it assert themselves as if by natural necessity. Such laws also govern the chances of commodity production and exchange. To the individuals producing or exchanging, they appear as alien, at first often unrecognized, powers, whose nature must first be laboriously investigated and established. These economic laws of commodity production are modified with the various stages of this form of production; but in general the whole period of civilization is dominated by them. And still to this day the product rules the producer; still to this day the total production of society is regulated, not by a jointly devised plan, but by blind laws which manifest themselves with elemental violence in the final instance in the storms of the periodical trade crises.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 94)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

And now that large-scale industry has taken the wife out of the home onto the labour market and into the factory, and made her often the breadwinner of the family, no basis for any kind of male supremacy is left in the proletarian household, except, perhaps, for something of the brutality toward women that has spread since the introduction of monogamy. The proletarian family is therefore no longer monogamous in the strict sense, even where there is passionate love and firmest loyalty on both sides and maybe all the blessings of religious and civil authority. Here, therefore, the eternal attendants of monogamy, hetaerism and adultery, play only an almost vanishing part. The wife has in fact regained the right to dissolve the marriage, and if two people cannot get on with one another, they prefer to separate. In short, proletarian marriage is monogamous in the etymological sense of the word, but not at all in its historical sense.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 78)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

Thus the heritage which group marriage has bequeathed to civilization is double-edged, just as everything civilization brings forth is double-edged, double-tongued, divided against itself, contradictory: here monogamy, there hetaerism with its most extreme form, prostitution. For hetaerism is as much a social institution as any other; it continues the old sexual freedom – to the advantage of the men. Actually, not merely tolerated but gaily practised by the ruling classes particularly, it is condemned in words. But in reality this condemnation never falls on the men concerned, but only on the women; they are despised and outcast in order that the unconditional supremacy of men over the female sex may be once more proclaimed as a fundamental law of society.

But a second contradiction thus develops within monogamous marriage itself. At the side of the husband who embellishes his existence with hetaerism stands the neglected wife. And one cannot have one side of this contradiction without the other, any more than a man has a whole apple in his hand after eating half. But that seems to have been the husbands’ notion, until their wives taught them better. With monogamous marriage, two constant social types, unknown hitherto, make their appearance on the scene – the wife’s attendant lover and the cuckold husband. The husbands had won the victory over the wives, but the vanquished magnanimously provided the crown. Together with monogamous marriage and hetaerism, adultery became an unavoidable social institution – denounced, severely penalized, but impossible to suppress. At best, the certain paternity of the children rested on moral conviction as before... Such is the final result of three thousand years of monogamous marriage.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 75)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

For now slavery had also been invented. To the barbarian of the lower stage, a slave was valueless. Hence the treatment of defeated enemies by the American Indians was quite different from that at a higher stage. The men were killed or adopted as brothers into the tribe of the victors; the women were taken as wives or otherwise adopted with their surviving children. At this stage human labour power still does not produce any considerable surplus over and above its maintenance costs. That was no longer the case after the introduction of cattle breeding, metalworking, weaving and, lastly, agriculture. Just as the wives whom it had formerly been so easy to obtain had now acquired an exchange value and were bought, so also with labour power, particularly since the herds had definitely become family possessions. The family did not multiply so rapidly as the cattle. More people were needed to look after them; for this purpose use could be made of the enemies captured in war, who could also be bred just as easily as the cattle themselves.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 65)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

To pass their property on to their biological offspring, fathers demanded paternity be established beyond doubt, so necessitating the elimination of female promiscuity. ‘The overthrow of mother right was the world historical defeat of the female sex. The man took command in the home also; the woman was degraded and reduced to servitude; she became the slave of his lust and a mere instrument for the production of children,’ Engels explained. ‘In order to make certain of the wife’s fidelity and therefore of the paternity of the children, she is delivered over unconditionally to the power of the husband; if he kills her, he is only exercising his rights.’ The man, meanwhile, successfully and hypocritically retained his own rights to conjugal infidelity.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 67)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

The division of labour between the two sexes is determined by quite other causes than by the position of woman in society. Among people where the women have to work far harder than we think suitable, there is often much more real respect for women than among our Europeans. The lady of civilization, surrounded by false homage and estranged from all real work, has an infinitely lower social position than the hard-working woman of barbarism, who was regarded among her people as a real lady (lady, frowa, Frau – mistress) and who was also a lady in character.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 61)

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State (EBook, 2010, Penguin Books) 3 stars

The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), was a provocative and …

Communistic housekeeping, however, means the supremacy of women in the house; just as the exclusive recognition of the female parent, owing to the impossibility of recognizing the male parent with certainty, means that the women – the mothers – are held in high respect. One of the most absurd notions taken over from eighteenth-century enlightenment is that in the beginning of society woman was the slave of man. Among all savages and all barbarians of the lower and middle stages, and to a certain extent of the upper stage also, the position of women is not only free, but honourable.

The Origin Of The Family, Private Property, and The State by  (Page 60)